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Although the revolt was suppressed, Muhammad Ali's army retreated and Ottoman rule was restored with British support in In , after the Allies conquered the Levant during World War I , the territory was divided between Britain and France under the mandate system , and the British-administered area which included modern day Israel was named Mandatory Palestine.
Since the existence of the earliest Jewish diaspora , many Jews have aspired to return to "Zion" and the "Land of Israel",  though the amount of effort that should be spent towards such an aim was a matter of dispute.
Theodor Herzl The first wave of modern Jewish migration to Ottoman-ruled Palestine , known as the First Aliyah , began in , as Jews fled pogroms in Eastern Europe.
From to , the Jews had established dozens of settlements and purchased about , dunams of land. At the same time, the revival of the Hebrew language began among Jews in Palestine, spurred on largely by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda , a Russian-born Jew who had settled in Jerusalem in Jews were encouraged to speak Hebrew in the place of other languages, a Hebrew school system began to emerge, and new words were coined or borrowed from other languages for modern inventions and concepts.
As a result, Hebrew gradually became the predominant language of the Jewish community of Palestine, which until then had been divided into different linguistic communities that primarily used Hebrew for religious purposes and as a means of communication between Jews with different native languages.
Although the Zionist movement already existed in practice, Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl is credited with founding political Zionism ,  a movement that sought to establish a Jewish state in the Land of Israel, thus offering a solution to the so-called Jewish question of the European states, in conformity with the goals and achievements of other national projects of the time.
The first such organization was Bar-Giora , a small secret guard founded in Two years later, larger Hashomer organization was founded as its replacement.
In , the Jewish Legion , a group primarily of Zionist volunteers, assisted in the British conquest of Palestine. This was a major cause of the Arab revolt of —39 , which was launched as a reaction to continued Jewish immigration and land purchases.
Several hundred Jews and British security personnel were killed, while the British Mandate authorities alongside the Zionist militias of the Haganah and Irgun killed 5, Arabs and wounded 14,,   resulting in over ten percent of the adult male Palestinian Arab population killed, wounded, imprisoned or exiled.
With countries around the world turning away Jewish refugees fleeing the Holocaust , a clandestine movement known as Aliyah Bet was organized to bring Jews to Palestine.
After World War II, the UK found itself facing a Jewish guerrilla campaign over Jewish immigration limits, as well as continued conflict with the Arab community over limit levels.
The Haganah joined Irgun and Lehi in an armed struggle against British rule. The Haganah attempted to bring these refugees to Palestine in a program called Aliyah Bet in which tens of thousands of Jewish refugees attempted to enter Palestine by ship.
Most of the ships were intercepted by the Royal Navy and the refugees rounded up and placed in detention camps in Atlit and Cyprus by the British.
On 22 July , Irgun attacked the British administrative headquarters for Palestine, which was housed in the southern wing  of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem.
It was conceived as a response to Operation Agatha a series of widespread raids, including one on the Jewish Agency , conducted by the British authorities and was the deadliest directed at the British during the Mandate era.
British efforts to mediate a negotiated solution with Jewish and Arab representatives also failed as the Jews were unwilling to accept any solution that did not involve a Jewish state and suggested a partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states, while the Arabs were adamant that a Jewish state in any part of Palestine was unacceptable and that the only solution was a unified Palestine under Arab rule.
On 15 May , the General Assembly of the United Nations resolved that the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine be created "to prepare for consideration at the next regular session of the Assembly a report on the question of Palestine.
After three Irgun fighters had been sentenced to death for their role in the Acre Prison break , a May Irgun raid on Acre Prison in which 27 Irgun and Lehi militants were freed, the Irgun captured two British sergeants and held them hostage, threatening to kill them if the three men were executed.
When the British carried out the executions, the Irgun responded by killing the two hostages and hanged their bodies from eucalyptus trees, booby-trapping one of them with a mine which injured a British officer as he cut the body down.
The hangings caused widespread outrage in Britain and were a major factor in the consensus forming in Britain that it was time to evacuate Palestine.
In September , the British cabinet decided that the Mandate was no longer tenable, and to evacuate Palestine. According to Colonial Secretary Arthur Creech Jones , four major factors led to the decision to evacuate Palestine: the inflexibility of Jewish and Arab negotiators who were unwilling to compromise on their core positions over the question of a Jewish state in Palestine, the economic pressure that stationing a large garrison in Palestine to deal with the Jewish insurgency and the possibility of a wider Jewish rebellion and the possibility of an Arab rebellion put on a British economy already strained by World War II, the "deadly blow to British patience and pride" caused by the hangings of the sergeants, and the mounting criticism the government faced in failing to find a new policy for Palestine in place of the White Paper of The Jewish Agency , which was the recognized representative of the Jewish community, accepted the plan.
As Arab militias and gangs attacked Jewish areas, they were faced mainly by the Haganah , as well as the smaller Irgun and Lehi. In April , the Haganah moved onto the offensive.
After a year of fighting, a ceasefire was declared and temporary borders, known as the Green Line , were established.
The UN estimated that more than , Palestinians were expelled by or fled from advancing Israeli forces during the conflict—what would become known in Arabic as the Nakba "catastrophe".
Israel was admitted as a member of the UN by majority vote on 11 May Immigration to Israel during the late s and early s was aided by the Israeli Immigration Department and the non-government sponsored Mossad LeAliyah Bet lit.
Mossad LeAliyah Bet was disbanded in The immigrants came for differing reasons: some held Zionist beliefs or came for the promise of a better life in Israel, while others moved to escape persecution or were expelled.
An influx of Holocaust survivors and Jews from Arab and Muslim countries to Israel during the first three years increased the number of Jews from , to 1,, By , the population of Israel rose to two million.
The need to solve the crisis led Ben-Gurion to sign a reparations agreement with West Germany that triggered mass protests by Jews angered at the idea that Israel could accept monetary compensation for the Holocaust.
During the s, Israel was frequently attacked by Palestinian fedayeen , nearly always against civilians,  mainly from the Egyptian-occupied Gaza Strip,  leading to several Israeli reprisal operations.
In , the United Kingdom and France aimed at regaining control of the Suez Canal , which the Egyptians had nationalized. The continued blockade of the Suez Canal and Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping, together with the growing amount of Fedayeen attacks against Israel's southern population, and recent Arab grave and threatening statements, prompted Israel to attack Egypt.
Since , Arab countries, concerned over Israeli plans to divert waters of the Jordan River into the coastal plain ,  had been trying to divert the headwaters to deprive Israel of water resources, provoking tensions between Israel on the one hand, and Syria and Lebanon on the other.
Arab nationalists led by Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser refused to recognize Israel and called for its destruction. Jordan, Syria and Iraq responded and attacked Israel.
Following the war and the " Three No's " resolution of the Arab League and during the — War of Attrition , Israel faced attacks from the Egyptians in the Sinai Peninsula, and from Palestinian groups targeting Israelis in the occupied territories, in Israel proper, and around the world.
Most important among the various Palestinian and Arab groups was the Palestinian Liberation Organization PLO , established in , which initially committed itself to "armed struggle as the only way to liberate the homeland".
The Israeli government responded with an assassination campaign against the organizers of the massacre, a bombing and a raid on the PLO headquarters in Lebanon.
The war ended on 25 October with Israel successfully repelling Egyptian and Syrian forces but having suffered over 2, soldiers killed in a war which collectively took 10—35, lives in about 20 days.
Israeli commandos carried out an operation in which out of Israeli hostages were successfully rescued. The Knesset elections marked a major turning point in Israeli political history as Menachem Begin 's Likud party took control from the Labor Party.
The PLO soon resumed its policy of attacks against Israel. In the next few years, the PLO infiltrated the south and kept up a sporadic shelling across the border.
Israel carried out numerous retaliatory attacks by air and on the ground. Meanwhile, Begin's government provided incentives for Israelis to settle in the occupied West Bank , increasing friction with the Palestinians in that area.
No Israeli legislation has defined the territory of Israel and no act specifically included East Jerusalem therein.
Several waves of Ethiopian Jews immigrated to Israel since the s, while between and , immigration from the post-Soviet states increased Israel's population by twelve percent.
On 7 June , the Israeli air force destroyed Iraq's sole nuclear reactor under construction just outside Baghdad , in order to impede Iraq's nuclear weapons program.
An Israeli government inquiry—the Kahan Commission —would later hold Begin and several Israeli generals as indirectly responsible for the Sabra and Shatila massacre and hold Defense minister Ariel Sharon as bearing "personal responsibility" for the massacre.
Israel withdrew from most of Lebanon in , but maintained a borderland buffer zone in southern Lebanon until , from where Israeli forces engaged in conflict with Hezbollah.
The First Intifada , a Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule,  broke out in , with waves of uncoordinated demonstrations and violence occurring in the occupied West Bank and Gaza.
Over the following six years, the Intifada became more organised and included economic and cultural measures aimed at disrupting the Israeli occupation.
More than a thousand people were killed in the violence. Despite public outrage, Israel heeded American calls to refrain from hitting back and did not participate in that war.
In , Yitzhak Rabin became Prime Minister following an election in which his party called for compromise with Israel's neighbors.
Under the leadership of Benjamin Netanyahu at the end of the s, Israel withdrew from Hebron ,  and signed the Wye River Memorandum , giving greater control to the Palestinian National Authority.
During the summit, Barak offered a plan for the establishment of a Palestinian state. Some commentators contend that the uprising was pre-planned by Arafat due to the collapse of peace talks.
During his tenure, Sharon carried out his plan to unilaterally withdraw from the Gaza Strip and also spearheaded the construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier ,  ending the Intifada.
In July , a Hezbollah artillery assault on Israel's northern border communities and a cross-border abduction of two Israeli soldiers precipitated the month-long Second Lebanon War.
At the end of , Israel entered another conflict as a ceasefire between Hamas and Israel collapsed. The —09 Gaza War lasted three weeks and ended after Israel announced a unilateral ceasefire.
Despite neither the rocket launchings nor Israeli retaliatory strikes having completely stopped, the fragile ceasefire remained in order. The Iranian—Israeli conflict gradually emerged from the declared hostility of post-revolutionary Islamic Republic of Iran towards Israel since , into covert Iranian support of Hezbollah during the South Lebanon conflict — and essentially developed into a proxy regional conflict from With increasing Iranian involvement in the Syrian Civil War from the conflict shifted from proxy warfare into direct confrontation by early Israel is located in the Levant area of the Fertile Crescent region.
The country is at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea , bounded by Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan and the West Bank to the east, and Egypt and the Gaza Strip to the southwest.
Despite its small size, Israel is home to a variety of geographic features, from the Negev desert in the south to the inland fertile Jezreel Valley , mountain ranges of the Galilee , Carmel and toward the Golan in the north.
The Israeli coastal plain on the shores of the Mediterranean is home to most of the nation's population.
Unique to Israel and the Sinai Peninsula are makhteshim , or erosion cirques. This tectonic disposition leads to a relatively high seismic activity in the region.
The entire Jordan Valley segment is thought to have ruptured repeatedly, for instance during the last two major earthquakes along this structure in and The most catastrophic known earthquakes occurred in 31 BCE, , , and CE, that is every ca.
Temperatures in Israel vary widely, especially during the winter. Coastal areas, such as those of Tel Aviv and Haifa , have a typical Mediterranean climate with cool, rainy winters and long, hot summers.
The area of Beersheba and the Northern Negev have a semi-arid climate with hot summers, cool winters, and fewer rainy days than the Mediterranean climate.
The Southern Negev and the Arava areas have a desert climate with very hot, dry summers, and mild winters with few days of rain. The highest temperature in the continent of Asia Four different phytogeographic regions exist in Israel, due to the country's location between the temperate and tropical zones, bordering the Mediterranean Sea in the west and the desert in the east.
For this reason, the flora and fauna of Israel are extremely diverse. There are 2, known species of plants found in Israel. Of these, at least species are introduced and non-native.
Tiberias and the Sea of Galilee. Field of Anemone coronaria , national flower of Israel. Makhtesh Ramon , a type of crater unique to Israel and the Sinai Peninsula.
As of , Israel's population was an estimated 9,,, of whom Exact figures are unknown, as many of them are living in the country illegally,  but estimates run from ,  to , Israel was established as a homeland for the Jewish people and is often referred to as a Jewish state.
The country's Law of Return grants all Jews and those of Jewish ancestry the right to Israeli citizenship. Three quarters of the population are Jews from a diversity of Jewish backgrounds.
Jews who left or fled Arab and Muslim countries and their descendants, including both Mizrahi and Sephardi Jews,  form most of the rest of the Jewish population.
In addition to the West Bank settlements, there were more than , Jews living in East Jerusalem ,  and 22, in the Golan Heights. There are four major metropolitan areas: Gush Dan Tel Aviv metropolitan area; population 3,, , Jerusalem metropolitan area population 1,, , Haifa metropolitan area population , , and Beersheba metropolitan area population , Israel has 16 cities with populations over , In all, there are 77 Israeli localities granted "municipalities" or "city" status by the Ministry of the Interior,  four of which are in the West Bank.
Israel has one official language, Hebrew. Arabic had been an official language of the State of Israel;  in it was downgraded to having a 'special status in the state' with its use by state institutions to be set in law.
Arabic is spoken by the Arab minority, with Hebrew taught in Arab schools. As a country of immigrants , many languages can be heard on the streets.
Due to mass immigration from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia some , Ethiopian Jews live in Israel ,   Russian and Amharic are widely spoken.
English was an official language during the Mandate period; it lost this status after the establishment of Israel, but retains a role comparable to that of an official language,    as may be seen in road signs and official documents.
Many Israelis communicate reasonably well in English, as many television programs are broadcast in English with subtitles and the language is taught from the early grades in elementary school.
In addition, Israeli universities offer courses in the English language on various subjects. Muslims constitute Israel's largest religious minority, making up about The city of Jerusalem is of special importance to Jews, Muslims, and Christians, as it is the home of sites that are pivotal to their religious beliefs, such as the Old City that incorporates the Western Wall and the Temple Mount , the Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
Kababir , Haifa's mixed neighbourhood of Jews and Ahmadi Arabs is one of a few of its kind in the country, others being Jaffa , Acre , other Haifa neighborhoods, Harish and Upper Nazareth.
Education is highly valued in the Israeli culture and was viewed as a fundamental block of ancient Israelites. Israel has a school life expectancy of 16 years and a literacy rate of The public secular is the largest school group, and is attended by the majority of Jewish and non-Arab pupils in Israel.
Most Arabs send their children to schools where Arabic is the language of instruction. Proficiency in core subjects such as mathematics, the Hebrew language , Hebrew and general literature, the English language , history, Biblical scripture and civics is necessary to receive a Bagrut certificate.
This figure has remained stable in their already high levels of educational attainment over recent generations.
Israel has a tradition of higher education where its quality university education has been largely responsible in spurring the nations modern economic development.
Ariel University , in the West Bank , is the newest university institution, upgraded from college status, and the first in over thirty years.
Israel is a parliamentary democracy with universal suffrage. A member of parliament supported by a parliamentary majority becomes the prime minister —usually this is the chair of the largest party.
The prime minister is the head of government and head of the cabinet. Israel is governed by a member parliament, known as the Knesset.
Membership of the Knesset is based on proportional representation of political parties ,  with a 3. The Basic Laws of Israel function as an uncodified constitution.
In , the Knesset began to draft an official constitution based on these laws. The president of Israel is head of state , with limited and largely ceremonial duties.
Israel has no official religion,    but the definition of the state as " Jewish and democratic " creates a strong connection with Judaism, as well as a conflict between state law and religious law.
Interaction between the political parties keeps the balance between state and religion largely as it existed during the British Mandate.
Israel has a three-tier court system. At the lowest level are magistrate courts, situated in most cities across the country.
Above them are district courts , serving as both appellate courts and courts of first instance ; they are situated in five of Israel's six districts.
The third and highest tier is the Supreme Court , located in Jerusalem; it serves a dual role as the highest court of appeals and the High Court of Justice.
In the latter role, the Supreme Court rules as a court of first instance, allowing individuals, both citizens and non-citizens, to petition against the decisions of state authorities.
Israel's legal system combines three legal traditions: English common law , civil law , and Jewish law. Court cases are decided by professional judges rather than juries.
The election of judges is carried out by a committee of two Knesset members, three Supreme Court justices, two Israeli Bar members and two ministers one of which, Israel's justice minister , is the committee's chairman.
The committee's members of the Knesset are secretly elected by the Knesset, and one of them is traditionally a member of the opposition, the committee's Supreme Court justices are chosen by tradition from all Supreme Court justices by seniority, the Israeli Bar members are elected by the bar, and the second minister is appointed by the Israeli cabinet.
The current justice minister and committee's chairwoman is Ayelet Shaked. Both General and Labor courts are paperless courts: the storage of court files, as well as court decisions, are conducted electronically.
As a result of " Enclave law ", large portions of Israeli civil law are applied to Israeli settlements and Israeli residents in the occupied territories.
All of the Judea and Samaria Area and parts of the Jerusalem and Northern districts are not recognized internationally as part of Israel.
Since Israel's capture of these territories, Israeli settlements and military installations have been built within each of them, except Lebanon.
The Golan Heights and East Jerusalem have been fully incorporated into Israel under Israeli law, but not under international law.
Israel has applied civilian law to both areas and granted their inhabitants permanent residency status and the ability to apply for citizenship.
The UN Security Council has declared the annexation of the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem to be "null and void" and continues to view the territories as occupied.
The West Bank excluding East Jerusalem is known in Israeli law as the Judea and Samaria Area ; the almost , Israeli settlers residing in the area are considered part of Israel's population, have Knesset representation, a large part of Israel's civil and criminal laws applied to them, and their output is considered part of Israel's economy.
Israeli political opposition to annexation is primarily due to the perceived "demographic threat" of incorporating the West Bank's Palestinian population into Israel.
The international community maintains that Israel does not have sovereignty in the West Bank, and considers Israel's control of the area to be the longest military occupation is modern history.
Only Britain recognized this annexation and Jordan has since ceded its claim to the territory to the PLO. The population are mainly Palestinians , including refugees of the Arab—Israeli War.
Since the Israel—PLO letters of recognition , most of the Palestinian population and cities have been under the internal jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority , and only partial Israeli military control, although Israel has on several occasions redeployed its troops and reinstated full military administration during periods of unrest.
In response to increasing attacks during the Second Intifada , the Israeli government started to construct the Israeli West Bank barrier. The Gaza Strip is considered to be a "foreign territory" under Israeli law; however, since Israel operates a land, air, and sea blockade of the Gaza Strip , together with Egypt, the international community considers Israel to be the occupying power.
The Gaza Strip was occupied by Egypt from to and then by Israel after In , as part of Israel's unilateral disengagement plan , Israel removed all of its settlers and forces from the territory, however, it continues to maintain control of its airspace and waters.
The international community, including numerous international humanitarian organizations and various bodies of the UN, consider Gaza to remain occupied.
The International Court of Justice , principal judicial organ of the UN, asserted, in its advisory opinion on the legality of the construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier , that the lands captured by Israel in the Six-Day War, including East Jerusalem, are occupied territory.
State Department ,  mass arbitrary arrests, torture, unlawful killings, systemic abuses and impunity by Amnesty International and others       and a denial of the right to Palestinian self-determination.
It has diplomatic missions around the world;  countries with whom they have no diplomatic relations include most Muslim countries.
Despite the peace treaty between Israel and Egypt, Israel is still widely considered an enemy country among Egyptians.
The United States and the Soviet Union were the first two countries to recognize the State of Israel, having declared recognition roughly simultaneously.
Although Turkey and Israel did not establish full diplomatic relations until ,  Turkey has cooperated with the Jewish state since its recognition of Israel in Turkey's ties to the other Muslim-majority nations in the region have at times resulted in pressure from Arab and Muslim states to temper its relationship with Israel.
The joint Cyprus-Israel oil and gas explorations centered on the Leviathan gas field are an important factor for Greece, given its strong links with Cyprus.
Azerbaijan is one of the few majority Muslim countries to develop bilateral strategic and economic relations with Israel. Azerbaijan supplies Israel with a substantial amount of its oil needs, and Israel has helped modernize the Armed Forces of Azerbaijan.
India established full diplomatic ties with Israel in and has fostered a strong military, technological and cultural partnership with the country since then.
Israel has a history of providing emergency aid and humanitarian response teams to disasters across the world.
The program's focus subsequently shifted to Africa. In recent years Israel has tried to reestablish its aid to Africa. In six nations reached the UN target.
The IDF consists of the army , air force and navy. It was founded during the Arab—Israeli War by consolidating paramilitary organizations—chiefly the Haganah —that preceded the establishment of the state.
Most Israelis are drafted into the military at the age of Men serve two years and eight months and women two years.
Most women are exempt from reserve duty. Arab citizens of Israel except the Druze and those engaged in full-time religious studies are exempt from military service , although the exemption of yeshiva students has been a source of contention in Israeli society for many years.
The nation's military relies heavily on high-tech weapons systems designed and manufactured in Israel as well as some foreign imports.
The Arrow missile is one of the world's few operational anti-ballistic missile systems. Israel is widely believed to possess nuclear weapons  as well as chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction.
Since Israel's establishment, military expenditure constituted a significant portion of the country's gross domestic product , with peak of Israel is considered the most advanced country in Western Asia and the Middle East in economic and industrial development.
Despite limited natural resources, intensive development of the agricultural and industrial sectors over the past decades has made Israel largely self-sufficient in food production, apart from grains and beef.
Israel has one of the lowest external debts in the developed world, and is a lender in terms of net external debt assets vs.
Israel has the second-largest number of startup companies in the world after the United States,  and the third-largest number of NASDAQ-listed companies after the U.
Days of working time in Israel are Sunday through Thursday for a five-day workweek , or Friday for a six-day workweek. In observance of Shabbat , in places where Friday is a work day and the majority of population is Jewish, Friday is a "short day", usually lasting until in the winter, or in the summer.
Several proposals have been raised to adjust the work week with the majority of the world, and make Sunday a non-working day, while extending working time of other days or replacing Friday with Sunday as a work day.
Israel's development of cutting-edge technologies in software, communications and the life sciences have evoked comparisons with Silicon Valley.
The ongoing shortage of water in the country has spurred innovation in water conservation techniques, and a substantial agricultural modernization , drip irrigation , was invented in Israel.
Israel is also at the technological forefront of desalination and water recycling. The Sorek desalination plant is the largest seawater reverse osmosis SWRO desalination facility in the world.
As a result of innovations in reverse osmosis technology, Israel is set to become a net exporter of water in the coming years. Israel has embraced solar energy ; its engineers are on the cutting edge of solar energy technology  and its solar companies work on projects around the world.
It was thought that this would have lowered Israel's oil dependency and lowered the fuel costs of hundreds of Israel's motorists that use cars powered only by electric batteries.
Israel is served by two international airports , Ben Gurion Airport , the country's main hub for international air travel near Tel Aviv, and Ramon Airport , which serves the southernmost port city of Eilat.
There are several small domestic airports as well. Tourism, especially religious tourism , is an important industry in Israel, with the country's temperate climate, beaches , archaeological , other historical and biblical sites, and unique geography also drawing tourists.
Israel's security problems have taken their toll on the industry, but the number of incoming tourists is on the rebound. Israel began producing natural gas from its own offshore gas fields in Between and , Israel had imported gas from Egypt via the al- Arish—Ashkelon pipeline , which was terminated due to Egyptian Crisis of — In , a natural gas reserve, Tamar , was found near the coast of Israel.
A second natural gas reserve, Leviathan , was discovered in In , Israel began commercial production of natural gas from the Tamar field.
As of [update] , Israel produced over 7. Ketura Sun is Israel's first commercial solar field. Built in early by the Arava Power Company on Kibbutz Ketura , Ketura Sun covers twenty acres and is expected to produce green energy amounting to 4.
The field consists of 18, photovoltaic panels made by Suntech , which will produce about 9 gigawatt-hours GWh of electricity per year. Israel's diverse culture stems from the diversity of its population.
Jews from diaspora communities around the world brought their cultural and religious traditions back with them, creating a melting pot of Jewish customs and beliefs.
Work and school holidays are determined by the Jewish holidays , and the official day of rest is Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath.
Israeli literature is primarily poetry and prose written in Hebrew , as part of the renaissance of Hebrew as a spoken language since the midth century, although a small body of literature is published in other languages, such as English.
By law, two copies of all printed matter published in Israel must be deposited in the National Library of Israel at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
In , the law was amended to include audio and video recordings, and other non-print media. Israeli music contains musical influences from all over the world; Mizrahi and Sephardic music , Hasidic melodies, Greek music , jazz , and pop rock are all part of the music scene.
Israel has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest nearly every year since , winning the competition four times and hosting it twice.
The movie Ajami was the third consecutive nomination of an Israeli film. Continuing the strong theatrical traditions of the Yiddish theatre in Eastern Europe, Israel maintains a vibrant theatre scene.
Founded in , Habima Theatre in Tel Aviv is Israel's oldest repertory theater company and national theater. The Israel Museum in Jerusalem is one of Israel's most important cultural institutions  and houses the Dead Sea Scrolls ,  along with an extensive collection of Judaica and European art.
Israel has the highest number of museums per capita in the world. Mayer Institute for Islamic Art , both in Jerusalem.
The Rockefeller specializes in archaeological remains from the Ottoman and other periods of Middle East history. It is also the home of the first hominid fossil skull found in Western Asia, called Galilee Man.
Israeli cuisine includes local dishes as well as Jewish cuisine brought to the country by immigrants from the diaspora.
Since the establishment of the state in , and particularly since the late s, an Israeli fusion cuisine has developed. It incorporates many foods traditionally eaten in the Levantine , Arab , Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines, such as falafel , hummus , shakshouka , couscous , and za'atar.
Schnitzel , pizza , hamburgers , French fries , rice and salad are also common in Israel. Roughly half of the Israeli-Jewish population attests to keeping kosher at home.
The most popular spectator sports in Israel are association football and basketball. The Asian Games , held in Tehran, were the last Asian Games in which Israel participated , plagued by the Arab countries that refused to compete with Israel.
Israel was excluded from the Asian Games and since then has not competed in Asian sport events.
Chess is a leading sport in Israel and is enjoyed by people of all ages. There are many Israeli grandmasters and Israeli chess players have won a number of youth world championships.
The Ministry of Education and the World Chess Federation agreed upon a project of teaching chess within Israeli schools, and it has been introduced into the curriculum of some schools.
Owing partly to Soviet immigration, it is home to the largest number of chess grandmasters of any city in the world. Israeli grandmaster Boris Gelfand won the Chess World Cup  and the Candidates Tournament for the right to challenge the world champion.
He only lost the World Chess Championship to reigning world champion Anand after a speed-chess tie breaker. Israel has won nine Olympic medals since its first win in , including a gold medal in windsurfing at the Summer Olympics.
The Summer Paralympics were hosted by Israel. Israeli tennis champion Shahar Pe'er ranked 11th in the world on 31 January Its effectiveness and practical approach to self-defense, have won it widespread admiration and adherence around the world.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country in Western Asia. This article is about the State of Israel. For other uses, see Israel disambiguation.
Website www. Main article: History of Israel. Further information: Prehistory of the Levant. Main article: History of ancient Israel and Judah.
Main article: Second Temple period. Further information: Hasmonean dynasty , Herodian dynasty , and Jewish—Roman wars.
The Maccabaeans will rise again. Let me repeat once more my opening words: The Jews wish to have a State, and they shall have one. We shall live at last as free men on our own soil, and die peacefully in our own home.
The world will be freed by our liberty, enriched by our wealth, magnified by our greatness. And whatever we attempt there to accomplish for our own welfare will react with beneficent force for the good of humanity.
Further information: Arab—Israeli conflict. Play media. Further information: Israeli—Palestinian peace process and Iran—Israel proxy conflict.
Main articles: Geography of Israel and Wildlife of Israel. Geography of Israel. Coastal plain. Judaean Mountains.
Jordan Valley. Levantine Sea Mediterranean. Dead Sea. Gulf of Eilat. West Bank. Gaza Strip. Satellite images of Israel and neighboring territories during the day left and night right.
Further information: List of earthquakes in the Levant. Main articles: Demographics of Israel and Israelis. For a more comprehensive list, see List of cities in Israel.
Main article: Languages of Israel. Main articles: Religion in Israel and Abrahamic religions. Religion in Israel v t e.
Until , figures for Christians also included Others. Main article: Education in Israel. Main articles: Politics of Israel and Israeli system of government.
See also: Criticism of the Israeli government. President Reuven Rivlin. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. Main articles: Judiciary of Israel and Israeli law.
Main article: Districts of Israel. Districts of Israel. Tel Aviv. Judea and Samaria Area. Main articles: Israeli-occupied territories and Israeli occupation of the West Bank.
Israeli-occupied territories. Southern Lebanon occupation Sinai occupation. Jordan Valley annexation West Bank annexation.
Main articles: Foreign relations of Israel , International recognition of Israel , and Israeli foreign aid. Diplomatic relations.
Diplomatic relations suspended. Former diplomatic relations. No diplomatic relations, but former trade relations. No diplomatic relations.
Main articles: Israel Defense Forces and Israeli security forces. Further information: List of wars involving Israel , List of the Israel Defense Forces operations , and Israel and weapons of mass destruction.
Main article: Economy of Israel. Main articles: Science and technology in Israel and List of Israeli inventions and discoveries.
Main article: Transport in Israel. Main article: Tourism in Israel. See also: List of archaeological sites in Israel and the Palestinian territories.
Main article: Energy in Israel. Main article: Culture of Israel. Main article: Israeli literature. Main articles: Music of Israel and Dance in Israel.
Main article: Cinema of Israel. Main article: Media of Israel. For a more comprehensive list, see List of Israeli museums. Main article: Israeli cuisine.
Main article: Sport in Israel. See Status of Jerusalem for more information. Gaza is still considered to be " occupied " by the United Nations, international human rights organisations, and the majority of governments and legal commentators, despite the Israeli disengagement from Gaza , due to various forms of ongoing military and economic control.
For more details of this terminology dispute, including with respect to the current status of the Gaza Strip, see International views on the Israeli-occupied territories and Status of territories captured by Israel.
For an explanation of the differences between an annexed but disputed territory e. BBC News. Retrieved 14 August Jerusalem Post.
Retrieved 6 December The Czech Republic currently, before the peace between Israel and Palestine is signed, recognizes Jerusalem to be in fact the capital of Israel in the borders of the demarcation line from The Times of Israel.
Infobae in Spanish. Guatemala's embassy was located in Jerusalem until the s, when it was moved to Tel Aviv.
Israel National News. Embassy to Move". The New York Times. The Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 4 September The Guardian.
Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 8 August Knesset website. The Arabic language has a special status in the state; Regulating the use of Arabic in state institutions or by them will be set in law.
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 7 May Retrieved 20 February Retrieved 27 December International Monetary Fund.
Retrieved 23 March Retrieved 29 June United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 24 September Retrieved 26 December Globalization and World Cities Research Network.
Retrieved 1 March The refusal to recognize Jerusalem as Israeli territory is a near universal policy among Western nations.
This approach applies equally to West and East Jerusalem and is not affected by the occupation of East Jerusalem in To a large extent it is this approach that still guides the diplomatic behaviour of states and thus has greater force in international law.
Ahlstrom, Steven W. Holloway, Lowell K. Bread, Wine, Walls and Scrolls. Bloomsbury Publishing. Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 30 October Berquist Society of Biblical Lit.
Oxford University Press. A History of the Jewish People. Harvard University Press. The Encyclopedia of Christianity.
Eerdmans Publishing. Future government of Palestine". United Nations. Retrieved 21 March Most had sat glued to their radio sets broadcasting live from Flushing Meadow.
A collective cry of joy went up when the two-thirds mark was achieved: a state had been sanctioned by the international community.
The Zionist movement, except for its fringes, accepted the proposal. The Arab states hoped to accomplish this by conquering all or large parts of the territory allotted to the Jews by the United Nations.
And some Arab leaders spoke of driving the Jews into the sea and ridding Palestine "of the Zionist plague.
But, in public, official Arab spokesmen often said that the aim of the May invasion was to "save" Palestine or "save the Palestinians," definitions more agreeable to Western ears.
Archived from the original on 17 March Netherlands International Law Review. United Nations Department of Public Information.
East Jerusalem has been considered, by both the General Assembly and the Security Council, as part of the occupied Palestinian territory. Retrieved 10 October Homeland Security Today.
Retrieved 26 April Tel Aviv Notes. Retrieved 25 March Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law.
Israel claims it no longer occupies the Gaza Strip, maintaining that it is neither a Stale nor a territory occupied or controlled by Israel, but rather it has 'sui generis' status.
Pursuant to the Disengagement Plan, Israel dismantled all military institutions and settlements in Gaza and there is no longer a permanent Israeli military or civilian presence in the territory.
However the Plan also provided that Israel will guard and monitor the external land perimeter of the Gaza Strip, will continue to maintain exclusive authority in Gaza air space, and will continue to exercise security activity in the sea off the coast of the Gaza Strip as well as maintaining an Israeli military presence on the Egyptian-Gaza border.
Israel continues to control six of Gaza's seven land crossings, its maritime borders and airspace and the movement of goods and persons in and out of the territory.
Egypt controls one of Gaza's land crossings. Israel has declared a no-go buffer zone that stretches deep into Gaza: if Gazans enter this zone they are shot on sight.
Gaza is also dependent on israel for inter alia electricity, currency, telephone networks, issuing IDs, and permits to enter and leave the territory.
Israel also has sole control of the Palestinian Population Registry through which the Israeli Army regulates who is classified as a Palestinian and who is a Gazan or West Banker.
Since aside from a limited number of exceptions Israel has refused to add people to the Palestinian Population Registry. Elizabeth Wilmshurst ed.
International Law and the Classification of Conflicts. Even after the accession to power of Hamas, Israel's claim that it no longer occupies Gaza has not been accepted by UN bodies, most States, nor the majority of academic commentators because of its exclusive control of its border with Gaza and crossing points including the effective control it exerted over the Rafah crossing until at least May , its control of Gaza's maritime zones and airspace which constitute what Aronson terms the 'security envelope' around Gaza, as well as its ability to intervene forcibly at will in Gaza.
Gawerc, Michelle Lexington Books. While Israel withdrew from the immediate territory, Israel still controlled all access to and from Gaza through the border crossings, as well as through the coastline and the airspace.
Dowty University of California Press. The Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza is the longest military occupation in modern times.
New Left Review. International Review of the Red Cross. Although the basic philosophy behind the law of military occupation is that it is a temporary situation modem occupations have well demonstrated that rien ne dure comme le provisoire A significant number of post occupations have lasted more than two decades such as the occupations of Namibia by South Africa and of East Timor by Indonesia as well as the ongoing occupations of Northern Cyprus by Turkey and of Western Sahara by Morocco.
The Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, which is the longest in all occupation's history has already entered its fifth decade.
Freedom in the World. Freedom House. Retrieved 20 March Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 12 August Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 10 February Business Insider.
Retrieved 24 January World Happiness Report. Retrieved 26 February Retrieved 5 December The Palestine Post.
Archived from the original on 15 August New York. Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 6 August Retrieved 19 January Dever, Did God Have a Wife?
Eerdmans Publishing, p. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman. See also Hosea Retrieved 4 January Evolutionary Anthropology.
After a century of exhaustive investigation, all respectable archaeologists have given up hope of recovering any context that would make Abraham, Isaac, or Jacob credible "historical figures" [ Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research.
A History of Ancient Israel and Judah. Westminster John Knox Press. The material culture of the region exhibits numerous common points between Israelites and Canaanites in the Iron I period c.
The record would suggest that the Israelite culture largely overlapped with and derived from Canaanite culture In short, Israelite culture was largely Canaanite in nature.
Given the information available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural separation between Canaanites and Israelites for the Iron I period.
In Frederick E. NYU Press, pp. England: Sheffield Academic Press Ltd. Journal of Biblical Literature. The Jewish Study Bible 2nd ed. The Ancient Near East.
July The Bible and Interpretation. Hasel, Michael G. Handbook to Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. In Becking, Bob ; Grabbe, Lester eds.
As a West Semitic personal name it existed long before it became a tribal or a geographical name. This is not without significance, though is it rarely mentioned.
The word Israel originated as a West Semitic personal name. One of the many names that developed into the name of the ancestor of a clan, of a tribe and finally of a people and a nation.
The Israelites in History and Tradition. Retrieved 15 March From Habiru to Hebrews and Other Essays. True Jew: Challenging the Stereotype.
Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths. Mohr Siebeck, , p. Atlas of Jewish History. Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. University of South Dakota.
Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 9 February A History of Palestine, — Cambridge University Press.
Cooper The geography of genocide. University Press of America. Retrieved 1 January Retrieved 17 May Haifa was taken [ Albert of Aachen does not mention the date in a clear manner either.
From what he says, it appears that it was mainly the Jewish inhabitants of the city who defended the fortress of Haifa.
In his rather strange Latin style, he mentions that there was a Jewish population in Haifa, and that they fought bravely within the walls of the city.
He explains that the Jews there were protected people of the Muslims the Fatimids. They fought side by side with units of the Fatimid army, striking back at Tancred's army from above the walls of the citadel Judaei civis comixtis Sarracenorum turmis until the Crusaders overcame them and they were forced to abandon the walls.
The Muslims and the Jews then managed to escape from the fortress with their lives, while the rest of the population fled the city en masse.
Whoever remained was slaughtered, and huge quantities of spoils were taken. Resnick CUA Press. Susan B. Acre Northern District.
Eilat Southern District. Afula Northern District. Hod HaSharon Central District. Kiryat Ono Tel Aviv. Tiberias Northern District.
Qiryat Yam Haifa. Ness Ziona Central District. Qiryat Bialik Haifa. Ramat HaSharon Tel Aviv. Dimona Southern District. Or Yehuda Tel Aviv.
Interessante Orte in Israel Städte. AlSayid Tribe , Southern District. Arad , Southern District. Ariel , Judea and Samaria Area.
Azor , Tel Aviv. Basma , Haifa. Beit Jann , Northern District. Bet Dagan , Central District. Binyamina-Giv'at Ada , Haifa. Bir Hadaj , Southern District.
Bnei Ayish , Central District. Bu'ayna-Nujaydat , Northern District. Daliyat al Karmel , Haifa. Deir el Asad , Northern District.
Er Reina , Northern District. Even Yehuda , Central District. Gan Yavne , Central District. Ganei Tikva , Central District.
Gedera , Central District. Giv'at Shmuel , Tel Aviv. Herzliya Pituah , Tel Aviv. Jatt , Haifa. Judeida Makr , Northern District.
Kadima Zoran , Central District. Kefar Weradim , Northern District. Kefar Yona , Central District.
Kfar Yasif , Northern District. Kisra - Sume'a , Northern District. Kuseifa , Southern District. Laqiyya , Southern District.
Lehavim , Southern District. Maale Iron , Northern District. Majdal Shams , Northern District. Mazkeret Batya , Central District.
Meitar , Southern District. Nesher , Haifa. Netivot , Southern District. Ofaqim , Southern District. Pardesiyya , Central District.
Qalansuwa , Central District. Qiryat Shemona , Northern District. Rahat , Southern District. Rama , Northern District.
Ramat Yishay , Northern District. Rekhasim , Haifa. Safed , Northern District. Sederot , Southern District. Segev Shalom , Southern District.